presents

BIRKHOFF
Farside Directory - Ridge Section 81


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                                    Left.  Ridge Section 81; Right: Cropped 1200 dpi USGS color chart of Section 81                                            

Larger version of region
This area is out of frame not on the USGS Far Side Charts
Lunascan Quad Composite of Sections 80, 81 & 88, 89 & 88
LRO Wide Angle Camera 8 in pdf (Stebbins)
LRO  Wide Angle Camera 19 in pdf (Birkhoff & Rowland)


BRIEF DESCRIPTION
58.7_N_146.1_W
Birkhoff is a giant lunar walled plain that is located on the lunar Far Side. In the northern hermisphere this formation is an ancient impact site that has been heavily eroded, and the surface reshaped by multiple craters in the interior and along the rim. The outer wall is bordered by the craters Carnot to the south (out of frame), Rowland along the west rim, and Stebbins to the northeast. What remains of the perimeter is now a rugged sloping rise along the inner wall, and the rim has been worn down until it is level with the irregular external terrain. The rim is pock-marked by small craters of various dimensions. Within the crater are several craters that are notable in their own right. Along the northwest inner rim is the eroded Birkhoff X, while due south in the southwest floor is Birkhoff Q. The latter is joined by a low ridge to the double crater formation of Birkhoff K and L in the eastern half of the crater. In the northern interior are the smaller but relatively young Birkhoff Y and Z. The remainder of the floor is flat in places, with rough sections and many tiny craterlets.. (Credit: Some of the information used in the section feature descriptions was obtained from wikipedia.org.  Section 81 and this directory was created by Fran Ridge and Ned Haskin of The Lunascan Project).

             USEFUL TOOLS:

Lunar Farside Chart [300 dpi] (NASA/LPI)
Farside Image Composite [1600 dpi] (NASA/LRO)
Farside-contour-map-gray2800.jpg
astrosurf.com/lunascan/LAC_maps.htm (Bob Garfinkle) *
planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Moon1to1MAtlas

CRATERS:
Birkhoff, 345 km
Rowland, 171 km
Sommerfield, 169 km
Stebbins, 131 km

LUNAR ORBITER IMAGES:
Lunar & Planetary Institute:
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/ (Atlas)
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunarorbiter/ (Photo Gallery)
/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Birkhoff_crater_5028_h3_med.jpg
lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/bin/srch_nam.shtml?birkhoff%7C0
lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/bin/srch_nam.shtml?rowland%7C0
lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/bin/srch_nam.shtml?sommerfeld%7C0
lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/bin/srch_nam.shtml?stebbins%7C0

APOLLO IMAGES:
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/apollo/ (Apollo Image Atlas)
None.

CLEMENTINE IMAGES:
None found

LUNAR RECONNAISANCE ORBITER IMAGES:
http://lro.gsfc.nasa.gov/
http://wms.lroc.asu.edu/lroc_browse/
planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Feature/753?__fsk=1389337175
photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12914 (Boulder trail near Rowland)

YOU TUBE FLYOVERS:
None found

RESEARCH UPDATES:
the-moon.wikispaces.com/Birkhoff
lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2011/pdf/2702.pdf
planetarycraterconsortium.nau.edu/KirchoffPCC01.pdf
luna.e-cremona.it/birkhoff.htm
luna.e-cremona.it/somrow.htm (Sommerfeld & Rowland)
/adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1975LPI.....6..523L (Stebbins)