The Lunascan Project Moon
July 20, 1969
|The first manned spacecraft landing on the Moon was at 3:17 p.m.
E.S.T. on July 20, 1969, when the Apollo 11 Lunar Module, Eagle, landed
in Mare Tranquillitatis, located at 0°4'5"N latitude, 23°42'28"E
longitude. The Eagle landed approximately 50 kilometers from the
closest highland material and approximately 400 meters west of a sharp
rimmed blocky crater about 180 meters in diameter. Astronaut Aldrin immediately
began describing the the view from the window:
". . . it looks like a collection of
just about every variety of shapes, angularities, and granularities, every
variety of rock you could find . . . it looks as though they're going to
have some interesting colors to them."
Before the Apollo 11 landing took place there
were some reconnaissance flights performed by the Lunar Orbiters, in particular
Southern portion of Rukl Section 35
|Used in two other previous web pages in the Moon Shot Series, the
above graphics shows the locations of all three NASA missions, which culminated
in the Apollo 11 landing. The chart above is the bottom portion of Rukl
Section 35. For comparison purposes the crater Sabine is 30 km wide.
|The soft landing site of the Apollo 11 expedition
is even better represented here in this two-dimensional b&w image from
the Rukl Atlas photo collection. Close to it are the three small
craters Aldrin, Armstrong and Collins (3.4 km, 4.6 km, and 2.4 km in diameter)
named after the Apollo 11 crew. These are the only examples on the
near side of the Moon of lunar formations named after living persons.
The large crater to the left is Sabine. (Source: Rukl Atlas)
(Medium Power Scan) - Consolidated Lunar Atlas Photo E9
In the above image the arrow points to the landing
site in the southern portion of Mare Tranquillitatis. The two large craters
near the middle of the lower margin of the photograph are Theophilus and
Cyrillus. The rim of Theophilus Crater truncates (cuts across) the rim
of Cyrillus Crater, indicating that Theophilus is the younger crater. Ejecta
from Theophilus may be present in the vicinity of the Apollo 11 landing
site. Craters in the vicinity of the landing site include Moltke (the bright
rayed crater to the lower right of the arrow), Sabine (left of arrow) and
Maskelyne (upper right of arrow).
3-D image - AS10-32-4848 & 4849
(Use 3-D glasses)
|This Apollo 10 stereo pair (AS10-32-4848 & 4849) shows the Apollo
11 landing site in the Sea of Tranquility as indicated by the yellow dot.
The area immediately around the landing site is flat and devoid of craters
and so was considered safe to land on. Elsewhere we see different-sized
craters, some crater chains, and a few hills and rilles (long narrow valleys).
The large crater at the bottom is Moltke, about 4 miles (6km) in diameter.
Below Moltke, the shallow Hypatia rilles that stretch 75 miles (120km)
across the lunar surface can be seen.
Lunar Orbiter 2 Images
Orbiter II image of M. Tranquility
A reduced photograph of a part of Mare Tranquillitatis that is typical
of much of the area east and northeast of the Apollo 11 landing site. The
largest crater is about 490 m in diameter. (Lunar Orbiter print II-84-H)
Orbiter II image of Ranger 8 area
In marked contrast is Fig. 2, which shows part of the heavily cratered
belt that crosses the Ranger VIII landing area. Besides the largest craters
completely shown, 600-1,000 m in diameter, there are numerous craters 100
to more than 300 m in diameter. (Lunar Orbiter print II-71-H)
Lunar Orbiter 4 Images:
Lunar Orbiter 5 Images:
L Site High-Res Vertical View
Views of the Apollo 11 Landing Site - The two
groups of irregularly shaped craters north and west of the landing site
are secondaries from Sabine Crater. This view was obtained by the unmanned
Lunar Orbiter 5 spacecraft in 1967 prior to the Apollo missions to the
Moon. The black and white film was automatically developed onboard the
spacecraft and subsequently digitized for transmission to Earth. The regularly
spaced vertical lines are the result of combining individually digitized
'framelets' to make a composite photograph. and their regularly shaped
bright and dark spots are due to non uniform film development.
The fresh 180-meter-diameter crater left of the
center is West Crater. The landing site is about 60 meters west of 33-meter-diameter
Little West Crater. Astronaut Neil Armstrong visited the rim of Little
West Crater while astronaut Edwin Aldrin worked around the Lunar Module.
Medium Res Vertical
This photograph was taken from the Lunar Module
and it includes both the landing site (arrow) and the Command/Service Module
(upper right of arrow). The sharp rimmed crater at the lower margin is
Moltke. The craters north and west of the landing site are secondary craters
resulting from ejecta thrown out of Sabine Crater.
This oblique photograph was taken from the Apollo
11 Lunar Module looking west over Mare Tranquillitatis. The Apollo 11 landing
site was to the right of center in this photograph, near the terminator
(the transition from day to night). Although there are a number of craters,
ridges, grooves, and volcanic channels visible here, the region overall
is relatively smooth, which was a primary consideration in its selection
as the landing site. In the right foreground, the crater Maskelyne is 23
kilometers in diameter. It is 210 kilometers from the center of Maskelyne
to the Apollo 11 landing site.
Another Stereo 3-D RGB version of the Apollo
11 Landing Site
version of above
11 Landing Site in 3-D, bw version
The Apollo 11 landing site is located on the smooth
volcanic plains of southwestern Mare Tranquilitatis. The landing
is marked by the small green cross. Comparison of this site with
the subsequent landing sites for Apollo's 14, 15, 16, and 17 dramatically
illustrates why this site was chosen, namely for its lack of rugged relief.
These views (Hasselblad frames AS10-31-4537 and AS10-31-4539) show an area
25 km across from top to bottom. Because these are hand-held images, the
base/height ratio can be estimated only approximately at ~0.6, with a vertical
exaggeration of ~3. North is to the top.
descent (by Alan Murta)
Apollo 16 Image:
Oblique View of L Site
A later Mission, Apollo 16, Images Area - The
bright rays of Moltke Crater (lower right of arrow) are quite prominent
in this low-phase-angle photograph. The higher albedo of the highland material,
relative to the dark mare regions, also is evident in this view.
Due to the oblique viewing geometry of this photograph, the scale bar is
most accurate near the bottom margin of the photograph.
Apollo 11 (AS-506)
Lunar Landing Mission
11: The Mission
11 Landing Site Overview
views of the Apollo landing site
Image Collection - AS11
Apollo 11 Metric & Panaramic Photography
This web page was created by Francis Ridge
for The Lunascan Project for