following preliminary evaluation was conducted by Graham H. Stewart in
1995 and does not necessarily reflect the opinion of The Lunascan Project.
The analysis by the imaging team of The Lunascan Project will be provided
when completed and available from the main web page. Any image or graphics
that is not clear enough on your monitor should be downloaded and viewed
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- Francis Ridge, Coordinator, The Lunascan Project
After contacting INUFOR Director, Moira McGhee, Steve (Massey) was invited to attend a meeting of independent UFO Researchers which was held on Tuesday, September 5th 1995. Details of the observation were discussed and it was decided that a full analysis should be undertaken. I subsequently visited Steve's home on Sunday, September 10th to discuss details of the sighting and thereby obtained a video copy of the sequence from the camorder original to conduct a preliminary analysis.
Preliminary Analysis:I have undertaken a preliminary analysis of the video sequence and submit the following. I do however, strongly suggest that additional research be carried out with more sophisticated equipment such as video still frame enhancement. I am confident that this will provide additional and more detailed information especially in regard to the object's apparent shape. The astronomical (inverted) imagc shows an anomalous object entering the field of view at 66.5 degrees off the Moon's north pole at a very high rate of speed to disappear from the field of view at 246.5 degrees off the Moon's north pole. The timed duration that the object is visible is 0.74 of a second. Seen through the telescope the object travels from the lower right to the upper left obliquely in slightly less than 3/4 of a second.
Visual appearance: Still frame examination of the object reveals what appears to be a somewhat elliptical shape with evidence of a slight conical projection or bulge to the underside (independent still frame enhancement is likely to support this). This is more evident in the initial first few frames of the video sequence than the remainder. It is these first initial frames of the video sequence that are likely to produce the best results from any still frame analysis. The object does not show any evidence of self generated or reflected light even though the Moon's surface is fully illuminated by the sun. This immediately suggests that the object is not in the vicinity of the Moon either in orbit or close to the surface. It seems inconceivable that an object close to the Moon would not reflect at least some degree of light from the Sun. I therefore consider it more likely to have been somewhere within the Earth environment or at least, close to the Earth at the time of observation. What we appear to be actually seeing here is an object in silhouette against the brightly lit surface of the Moon. This is also likely to become more evident from any still frame enhancements.
Position check: Allowing for the fact that the on-screen image is astronomically inverted, and assuming that the object may have been in Earth environment, the object's apparent direction of travel was Southwest to Northwest and would have been close to 30 degrees above the horizon at the point of observation. At the point of observation the object would have been in the Earth shadow (umbra). If the object was a satellite or a piece of space junk seen prior to re-entry, this would certainly indicate why it was not illuminated.
Satellite check: At this point I contacted the Sydney Observatory and spoke to the Educational officer for information on satellite movements and any details of predicted space junk re-entry. Information provided from current tables confirmed the following:
(a) No satellite
movements at that time and date.
(b) No scheduled space junk re-entry at that time and date.
This does tend to rule out the possibilities of the object being a satellite or piece of space junk unless a satellite has been placed into Earth orbit that is unknown to the professional astronomy at this time. Assuming that this is not the case, we are left with the following main options:
or exotic military aircraft operating within the Earth's atmosphere.
(b) A piece of space debris outside of the Earth's atmosphere.
(c) A genuine "unknown" or (UFO) operating outside the Earth's atiliospliere.
Initial conclusion: I am inclined to rule out option (a) for the following reason. Because of the very high magnification used ie, combined power of telescope plus the camcorder zoom lens, a conventional or even exotic aeroform operating within the Earth's atmospheric envelope would have appeared many times larger than the object's actual visual on-screen size. It would also have passed through the field of view so rapidly that it is unlikely to have been seen at all. On the basis of this, I am more inclined to suggest that the object seen and captured on video was somewhere out in space between the Earth and the Moon.
This leaves us with options (b) and (c) to seriously consider, neither of which can be totally ruled out at this stage. If independent video enhancement confirms that the object is in fact oval in appearance, then the chances of the object being of extraterrestrial origin are greatly increased.
At this stage, I strongly advise the "camera original" be stored in a secure place and only "copies" be released to investigators for examination. The initial indicators suggest a "high probability" factor for a genuine sighting. If further analysis confirms what I suspect here, this piece of video footage is going to become very valuable. The graphic that accompanies this preliminary analysis conforms to the astronomical (inverted) image as seen by the observer.
Graphic to show path of "Konig 080895"
The shaded circle on the above graphic represents the apparent field of view converted by the equipment described in the analysis. The graphic is inverted as is standard with astronomical telescopes.
Stills Analysis (part 1.)
On Monday 18th September I received the first series of stills printed down from tile original video sequence. Four stills were obtained which show the various position changes as the object moves across the field of view.. From these it has been possible to confirm the initial 66.5 degree track augle from the Moon's North Pole. I have also been able to confirm that the object in question certainly appears to be elliptical in shape.
Illumination or lunar surface: Examination of the stills shows the Sun to be at just on 76 degrees off the Moon's North Pole at the time of observation. After checking the various shadow angles evident in the stills, I have estimated the sun to be close to 45 degrees above the horizontal plane in the area where the observation was made.
Check for shadow possibility: If the object was in fact a shadow cast by something just outside the field of view, it should be possible to re-create the effect. I set up a large piece of white card with the object's trajectory marked and aligned it with the calculated direction of the Sun when it was 45 degrees above the horizon. As the difference is only 9.5 degrees between the direction (if the Sun and the path of the object, it was immediately evident that if the object was a shadow, then whatever caused it would also he visible in the field of view just behind and slightly below the shadow. There is no evidence of this on the original video or the stills.
From the above, I must conclude that the object is very unlikely to be within the Moon's environment. With no confirmed satellite or space junk in the area at the time of observation (see preliminary analysis) we should now seriously consider the object captured on video as having been somewhere out in space perhaps close to the Moon when it crossed the field of view.
Check of object's trajectory: From the original video sequence, it is possible to ascertain the path of the object relative to the Moon's north pole. A line drawn through the centre, Gassendi and its attendant small crater shows it is offset from the Moon's north/south vertical by 19 degree. An onscreen video still frame shows Gassendi crater to be offset at 32 degrees above the video horizontal line. From this, it is possible to accurately determine the direction of north on the video printouts showing the object's movement across the field of view. The object enters the field of view slightly above the crater Konig at 66.5 degrees off the Moon's north pole (onscreen 5 o'clock position) where it travels at an oblique angle to disappear at the 11 o'clock onscreen position. Because the object enters the field of view very close to the craler Konig, we have decided to call it "Konig 080895" for reference. The graphic that accompanies this analysis is set to conform to the astronomical onscreen view.
duration (2nd check): A series of stills produced by Steve Massey
from the video sequence reveals that Konig 080895 is visible for 26 frames.
This confirms that the initial timed sequence is within less than one frame
Camcorder running speed =
|36 frames per second|
Original calculation =
36 x .74 =
Actual trajectory: From the above calculations, it is possible to ascertain the apparent trajectory of Konig 080895 in terms of actual visibility (non-astrononiical). When the observation was made (080895 -00.30 Hrs EST), the Moon was slightly north of due west at (approx) 30 degrees above the horizon. The Moon's north pole points downward and towards tile south east. If we transfer the path of Konig 080895 to an actual visual direction, its apparent trajectory is south east to north west and inclined from the horizontal plane at close to 3.5 degrees. The diagram overleaf is designed to illustrate apparent actual trajectory. Please note: This is based on the information provided by the observer.
Diagram to show apparent visual direction of "Konig 080895" (exaggerated scale - reference only)
The analysis suggests that the actual direction of travel was Southeast to Northwest inclined at angle 3.5 degrees from the horizontal plane.
Position at time of observation:
Significant Revelations from Stills Analysis (part 2) - "Konig 080895"
On Saturday 30th September, I received copies of the latest batch of stills taken from the original video footage. These included several "gamma" enhanced and cleaned up images of Konig 080895 from the first few frames of the total of 26. These first frames were found to be the clearest due to atmospheric heat distortion from the Earth's surface. Examination of these stills has proved to be very revealing as follows:
Gamma filtering (GAM GIF): This process has allowed for a range of different contrast levels between the object and the bright surface of the Moon. It has been possible to virtually bleach out the background of the Moon and isolate the object. It is immediately evident that the object presents a distinctly elliptical shape. This appears to be consistent through the entire 26 frames even after allowing for any distortion factor brought about by heat rising from the Earth's surface. This elliptical shape remains constant through background filtering constrast changes from alniost white to dark grey.
Gamma enhanced image (GAM 2 GIF): This enhanced and enlarged still is perhaps the most interesting and revealing of all. It is entirely evident that the object is elliptical in form. Furthermore, it is not of even density overall. There is a darker mass which makes up the central area of the total elliptical shape. Through the long section of the ovoid, the darker central mass is 40% of the total. Through the narrow part of the ellipsoid, the darker central mass takes up close to 60% of the total. The darker mass appears to be centrally placed.
Apparent size (visual) only: In the first and second frames of the sequence when the object enters the field of view it passes very close to the crater "Konig". Visually, the object appears 10% smaller than the crater Konig. This is in no way indicative of the actual size but may be helpful in calculating size and distance if the overall diameter of Konig can be determined from a recent and accurate atlas of the Moon.
Gamma enhanced image embossed and inverted: In this frame a more definite sculpturing of the object is apparent. The central (darker) mass is outlined quite clearly within the overall shape. Examination of this processed image suggests that the darker area extends out in relation to the rest of the object. This of course raises some very intriguing questions about the object's actual shape. This together with the obvious uniformity evident in the still frame enhancements strongly suggests the very real possibility of an "artifical" or constructed object.
Illumination: Careful examination of the embossed and inverted image described above reveals what appears to be a small but significant amount of reflected light. This is an extremely interesting discovery that was not evident in the stills exanimed earlier. There are two important points here - (a) Allowing for the "inversion" of the processed image in this still, the apparent angle of illumination is entirely consistent with the calculated direction of the sun at 76 degrees off the Moon's north pole. This would seem to indicate that the object is in fact reflecting a small amount of sunlight. (b) If additional analysis proves this to be correct, then the object is not anywhere near the Earth because it would have been in deep Earth shadow at the time of observation. In order for it to be reflecting some degree of light it would need to be much closer to the Moon than previously thought. I feel that a Hi-Tec examination of this gamma enhanced embossed and inverted image may provide further important information.
Special Note: At this point in the analysis, I suggest that there is a better than 70% chance that the object captured on video and now referred to as "Konig 080895" is -
(1) An artificial
or constructed object.
(2) An ellipsoid with evidence of some central protrusion.
(3) Near the Moon when captured on video.
(4) Moving at extremely high velocity.
Analysis (part 3) - Speed Estimate of "Konig 080895"
From the analysis carried out to date, it now seems extremely likely that the object passed within close proximity to the Moon at the time of observation, possibly as close as 3 to 4 thousand miles. Using the Moon as a background scale of reference, we are able to calculate a likely speed for Konig 080895. From an accurate Moon Atlas it has been possible to determine the distance covered in the elapsed time as evident from the video stills.
NB: The following calculation is considered to be the "upper limit" of estimated speed based on the assumption that the object was in fact close to the Moon when captured on video. Further analysis is still required to confirm this.
The object covered a distance
of 12 degrees (+ or -) 30 seconds of arc in 0.74 of a second. If
we take the Moon's apparent visual disc of 180 degrees and divide this
by 12 we get:
|180 divided 12 by =||15|
|15 x 0.74* =||11.10 secs to cross Moon's visual disc.|
Taking the Moon's diameter at
2160 miles divided by 11.10 seconds we get the following rather staggering
speed values for Konig 080895.
|2l60 divided by 11.10 =||194.5945 miles per sec|
|x 60 =||11,675.6756 miles per min|
|x 60 =||700,540.5402 miles per hr|
This sort of phenomenal speed is very much in keeping with the anomalous object captured by the onboard camera of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" on September 15th 1991 as it passed over Western Australia. The exhaustive analysis work carried out by Richard Hoagland and his team on that revealing sequence very strongly suggested the object seen was a "Hyper-dimensional vehicle" of extraterrestrlal origin operating within the Earth's environment. It also demonstrated phenomenal acceleration as it shot out into space through the Earth's airglow layer. Perhaps the object we call "Konig 080895" captured on video by Steve Massey is a similar type of craft observed and videotaped while passing close to the Moon.
Graphic to show trajectory of Konig 080895 relative to
Earth / Moon positions and direction of sunlight
(approx: scale only)
One of the original print-outs from the 26 frame video scquence showing the anomalous object just after it had entered the field of viev. It is seen to the lower right of shot just above the crater Konig. It was from these early sequence prints that the elliptical shape became apparent. The rounding effect to the right is cut-off from the telescope eyepiece.
One of the gamma enhanced images of Konig 080895. From this, its very distinct elliptical shape and overall uniformily was confirmed. There is also evidence in this enhancement suggesting a darker central mass. This image is frame number 2 from the original 26 frame sequence.
Analysis (Part 4) "Konig 080895" - Distance, Size and Speed.
In part 3 of the analysis (page 8), an "upper limit" speed for Konig was arrived at based on the distance covered relative to the Moon. This was assuming that the object passed extremely close to the surface of the Moon when observed and video taped. This upper limit speed was set at 700,540 miles per hour. In addition to this, the size of the object was calculated at 20 Kilometres across relative to the given size of the crater Konig which it passed just above. This again was an "upper limit" size assuming that the object was very close to the Moon.
On-going analysis has now convinced me that Konig 080895 was "closer and smaller" rather than distant and very large. I now believe that the object was traveling through the penumbra of the Earth at the time it was captured on video. A number of factors are responsible for this conclusion as follows:
(a) The very low albedo of Konig detected in the stills enhancement analysis is more consistent with an object dimly illuminated within the Earth's penumbra. This type of illumination is clearly evident when viewing an eclipse of the Moon.
(b) The upper limit calculated size of Konig seemed disproportionately high to be realistic.
(c) The calculated upper limit speed of Konig also seemed excessive.
(d) The data derived from calculating its position to he in the Earth's penumbra is more consistent with various other objects seen and reported. In particular, the object caputed by the on-board camera of the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1991 over Australia which became the subject of intensive investigation by Richard Hoagland.
Astronomical data necessary to make these calculations has been obtained from the following:
Atlas of the Moon - Antonin Rukl, Director of the Prague Planetarium.
(2) The Encyclopedia of Astronomy - Ian Ridpath
(3) Cojour of the Stars - Malin and Murdin
(4) General Astronomy - Harold Spencer Jones
The Earth's central dark shadow (umbra) at perigee is stated to be 5,700 statute miles wide and the outer shadow (penumbra) is 10,200 statute miles wide. Both extend beyond the orbit of Moon. The Moon's orbit is semi-elliptical. The distance from the Earth to the Moon is given as follows:
From the Moon phase and orbital data, copies included with this analysis, it will be seen that diagram No.4 shows the positions of the Earth and Moon relative to the direction of the Sun at 11.1 days. At this point the Moon is 8/10ths illuminated at exactly three days before Full Phase. This is the same alignment that was present when Konig was observed and videotaped. Konig was observed at 30 minutes after midnight on August 8th 1995 with full moon due on the 11th of August.
From the above, it has been possible to make some calculations regarding the line of sight distance between the point of observation in Sydney, Australia and the area of the Moon being observed at the time known as the Mare Humorum. At the 11.1 days point (diagram 4), the Moon is exactly midway between perigee and apogee with a distance of 381,550 Kms from Earth. It has also been possible to ascertain the viewing angle from the point of observation relative to the Earth's shadow and from this, calculate how much of the actual distance is taken up by Earth shadow in total. As August was the month of observation, the division of night and day was very close to equal at 12 by 12. At the time of observation, 00.30 Hrs EST, the point of observation, Sydney, Australia, was close to equidistant between the terminators of day and night. The following is what I now consider to be the "most likely" scenario for the distance, speed and size of Konig 080895.
From the previous page, a distance of 381,550 Km was found to be valid for the time of observation when the Moon was exactly midway between apogee and perigee. Calculations from the information given in various astronomy books regarding the Earth's shadow size and angle show that a minimum of 38% of the line of sight distance was shadow. Therefore -
|381,550 -38% =||144,989||78,288|
This is the minimum distance the object would need to be from Earth to clear the shadow and reflect full sunlight. As shown in the previous analysis, Konig is in fact reflecting a very low level of light consistent with what might be expected if it was in the penumbra at the time of observation. For reasons which are not relevant to this particular case investigation, I have estimated Konig to be at 133,344 Kms which converts to 72,000 nautical miles. This would place the object in the penumbra of the Earth at 35% of the total line of sight distance. This leaves us with 65% from which a reasonable estimate of the size can be determined.
Earlier calculations based on the asumption that Konig may have been very close to the Moon at the time of observation, suggested a somewhat staggering upper limit size of 20Km. This was based on comparison with the known size of the crater Konig from the stills analysis. We are now able to reduce this to a more realistic figure as follows:
|1st estimate of 20Km less 65%||7 Km|
|Less 730x magnification factor*||0.9589 Km|
|0.9589 converted to nautical miles||0.51776 NM|
|0.51667 converted to seconds of arc||31.07"|
|1 sec of arc is 101.259 standard feet||101.259 x 31.07|
|Standard feet equals||3146.117|
|Geodetic feet equals||3106.816|
*(see earlier analysis)
The earlier calculated "upper limit" speed indicated a phenomenal 700,540 Miles per Hour. This can now also be reduced proportionately by 65%to a more realistic 245,189 Miles per Hlour which is entirely consistent with the Space Shuttle Discovery UFO incident analysed by Richard Hoagland.
For a number of reasons, I now believe the above data to represent a "best estimate" scenario. On this basis, I am now happy to conclude that in my opinion, the object seen , videotaped and referred to as Konig 080895, is remarkably similar to what Hoagland has described as "Extraterrestrial Hyper Dimentional Craft" operating in and around Earth environment. Furthermore, I believe this stunning video sequence provides yet further proof of the existance of such vehicles. Collectively the analysis has revealed the following statistics:
object close to 3146.117 Std Ft or 3106.816 Geodetic Feet.
Shape: An ellipsoid with evidence of a central protrusion.
Speed: Calculated at around 245,000 miles per hour.
Albedo: Low reflectivity consistent with an object in the Earth's penumbra.
Distance: Estimated to be 72,000 nautical miles from Earth when observed.
The computer generated graphic overleaf shows the Earth, Moon and direction of sunlight relative to the trajectory of Korug 080895. (approximate scale only)
The above grapic reproduced from Hamlyn Atlas of the Moon - Rukl, shows the position of the Moon at 11.1 days or three days before full phase relative to the direction of the sunlight. The estimated trajectory of Konig 080895 is also shown together with its position "B" in the penumbra of the Earth shadow at the time of observation.
A - The position of Sydney, Australia at the time of observation
B - Position of Konig at time of observation
C - Terminator (line of sight) between Earth shadow and Sunlight
D - Area of observation on the Moon (Mare Humorum)
Line A - D is line of sight distance between the observation point and the area observed (381,550 Kms)
NB: As thc graphic is shown looking down on the Earth and Moon north poles, the positions A and D are shown where they would be located below the equator.
Two dramatic images of the Konig 080895 UFO
These gamma enhanced and solarized images from frame No.2 bring out detail less evident in the initial frames that were examined. Although solarization exaggerates image status, it is designed to more widely separate light areas from darker ones. It is very evident from applying this process that the object does infact have a darker central mass with a lighter surrounding area. Once again, image processing has confirmed the elliptical shape which has heen found to he consisteni through the entire 26 frames. The apparent darkening of the Moon's surface is due to the solarization process.
This is a gamma enhanced, inverted and embossed image
It is particularly interesting in that the process has revealed a definite sculpturing to the object. It is evident from the analysis of this and other solarized images, that Konig 080895 has a raised or protruding central area in relation to its overall shape. In this print, the image is inverted so that the blacks become white and the whites become black. After allowing for this inversion, the area showing illumination is consistent with the direction of the Sun at the time of observation. This was not evident in the initial images that were analysed.
Negative enhancement of Konig 080895
I am writing to see if you may be able to assist me with some research I am currently involved in. I am an amateur astronomer with a particular interest in asteroids and their movements in space. Recently a colleague of mine, also an amateur astronomer, was observing an area of the Moon a little south of the crater Gassendi in the Mare Humorum through his 10" Meade reflecting telescope. He was hand holding a camcorder to the eyepiece and while taping, observed a dark elliptical object move rapidly through his field of view.
After looking at the video sequence, I rather feel he may have captured a large piece of space debris or perhaps an asteroid moving through space which if so, is quite unique and very exciting. It may also be an unilluminated satellite in Earth orbit or a piece of space junk prior to re-entry.
Wouild it be possible for you to advise me if any satellites were in the area at the time of observation or if there was any space junk due to re-enter. The observation data is as follows:
Observation date: 08 08
Observation time: 00.30 Hrs (30 mins after midnight) Sydney local time.
Moon astronomical position: ALT:
I would be very grateful indeed if you are able to check this for me as my own satellite table is no longer current. I look forward to hearing from you.
Graham H. Stewart
AUSTRALIAN SPACE OFFICE
Graham H. Stewart
PO Box 958
Sydney NSW 2089
I have received your letter concerning your colleague's observation of an unidentified object and regret to advise that I am unable to be of much assistance. As this complex is ma>
Your description suggests to me that the dark elliptical object appeared to pass in front of the moon. If this was the case, then it would not be an asteroid and may well have been a piece of space debris. Although asteroids may have a dark surface by normal human standards, they typically have sufficient albedo to appear as relatively bright objects when observed through earth based telescopes. Your description of the object as being "large" suggests that it may have been a piece of launch vehicle casing, but I have no means of confirming this.
Thank you for your enquiry.
9 November 1995
CANBERRA DEEP SPACE COMMUNICATION COMPLEX
13 November 1995
P0 Box 958
NEUTRAL BAY 2089
Dear Mr Stewart,
In your letter of 3 November you mention an unusual observation with a camcorder - a dark object in front of the moon.
This is certainly a rare observation. My first guess would be that it was a bird or an aeroplane. If you can discount those possibilities, then it could be a satellite, but not an asteroid. Asteroids are further away than the moon and so would not appear in front of it.
Unfortunately, the only satellite table that we have available only lists visible satellite passes. On the 7 August, the latest time listed is 9.15 pm while on the 8 August, the earliest time is 3.49 am. These times bracket, but do not include the 12.30 am time that you mentioned. Our list comes from the Australian Space Office. Their address is P0 Box 269, Civic Square, ACT 2608. I would suggest that you contact them directly.
Good luck with your enquiries.
Dr. Nick Lomb
Curator of Astronomy
(End of Preliminary Analysis by Graham H. Stewart)
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